Apricot Farming – Introduction
Fruit farming is a very profitable farming. The demand for fruits is quite high in the market. With time, people have become more and more conscious about the importance of fruits. Because of that, the cultivation of fruits has also increased. Farmers are growing more fruit trees than ever. The fruit trees take a long time to bear fruits. But, they can give the fruits for a very long time. And the price for the fruits is also very high in the market.
Among fruits, apricots are very popular. There are so many different varieties of apricots available in the market. The apricot is an important fruit in the fruit market. It cannot be grown in all the regions of the world. Therefore, it is exported to many countries across the world. The apricots are eaten as fresh fruits. The dried form of the fruits is also popular. It is popularly put in many dessert dishes as well. The apricots are used for extracts. Those are used in confectionaries and other items. The quality of the apricot fruit is an important factor. Good quality fruits have good demand in the market. So, the farming must be done so that the quality of the fruits is maintained and also the yield is good.
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Scientific Name of Apricot: Prunus armeniaca
Top Countries Producing Apricots
Common Name For Apricots In Different Languages
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Different Varieties Of Apricots Cultivated Worldwide
This variety of apricot produces large sized fruits. The fruit has a nice aroma and is very juicy. The taste of the apricot is sweet and very rich. The fruit skin is brownish red in colour and has specks in it. The fruit has a yellowish or orange coloured flesh. The plant matures in the middle of the season.
The fruits are large in size and have a symmetrical shape. The fruits have a yellow colored skin and the flesh is firm in texture. The taste of the fruit is slightly acidic in nature. This is a variety of late harvesting variety of apricot. The fruits can be eaten fresh, canned and dried as well.
The size of the fruit is medium to large. The flesh is very thick in texture and has a yellow-orange The fruit is juicy and has a nice aroma. This classic apricot variety is best for eating fresh and for canning. The fruits can be harvested in the middle of the season or early.
The size of the fruit is medium and the fruit skin is golden yellow in color. The flesh is golden in color and has a very rich taste. The fruits are suitable for eating fresh or for canning. They are suitable for early harvest.
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The fruit size is medium to large. The fruit is almost round in shape with a bright golden fruit skin. The flesh is thick and has a sweet flavor to it. The fruit is used for eating fresh or for processing and canning. The fruits are suitable for harvesting in middle of the season to late harvest.
The size of the fruit is very large. The fruit skin has a red blush and the flesh are yellow in color. This is a freestone type of apricot fruit. The flesh is firm and has a mild taste. This is an early harvesting type of apricot.
The fruit size is large. It can be oval or oblong. The fruit skin is light yellow to orange. The fruit skin is light yellow to orange. The flavor of the fruit is medium. It is an early harvest variety.
The fruit size is medium and the skin of the fruit is bright yellow in color. The flesh is firm and has a nice aroma. The flavor of the fruit has an acidic to sweet flavor. The fruit is suitable for eating fresh. The harvest season is midseason to late.
The size of the apricot fruit is like that of a plum. The fruit has a bright orange colored skin. The flavor of the fruit is sweet and is mild. The flesh can be eaten fresh or canned. It is also used for making jams. The harvest time is midseason to early.
The fruit size is almost round and it is medium. The fruit skin is velvety in texture and has fine hairs. It is light yellow in color and has blushes of red on the skin. The flesh is quite firm in texture. This variety is suitable for midseason harvest.
The fruit size is medium. The fruit skin is yellow and is blushed with red. The flesh of the apricot is dark yellow in color. The red color of the flesh is towards the pit of the fruit. This variety is a hybrid between the plum and apricot. This is a variety of early harvest apricot variety.
The size of the apricot is like a plum. The fruit skin is golden. Flavour of the fruit is sweet. The fruit can be eaten fresh or canned. It is also used for making jams. The harvest season is midseason to early.
Cultivation Of Apricots
The apricot must be cultivated in colder climates. But, with proper farming methods, it can be grown in almost any other climatic conditions. The apricot plants require certain chilling hours to grow properly. For cultivation, there are many high yielding varieties of apricots available. The variety with a good yield must be selected.
Soil Conditions For Apricot Farming
The apricot plants prefer soils which are well drained and well aerated. Waterlogged conditions are not preferable to the apricot plants. The ideal ph of the soil for apricot cultivation is 6.0-7.0. The ph must not be too acidic or too basic. The soil must have a good content of organic matter in it. The moisture retention capacity of the soil must be good.
Climatic Conditions For Apricot Farming
The apricot normally grows in regions of colder climates. They need an average of 300-700 chilling hours to grow well. During the growth of the fruit, a drier climate is needed. The apricot plant can tolerate cold climates more than any other plant. But, the frost during spring is harmful to the apricot crop. So, they must be protected from that. For the normal growth, a warm climate is needed. The trees prefer lots of sunshine. Average annual rainfall is preferable to apricot cultivation.
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Land Preparation For Apricot Farming
For the land preparation of a fruit orchard, the site must be selected properly. For large scale cultivation, a larger area has to be selected. After that, weeds and other unwanted plants must be removed from the land. After that, the soil has to be ploughed several times. The ploughing must be done till the texture of the soil is smooth enough. After ploughing, the levelling and harrowing must be done. After the last plough, the farmyard manure must be mixed with the soil properly. Drainage channels must be provided to the land so that excess water can be drained out.
Propagation Methods For Apricot Farming
For propagation, the most common method is grafting. Seedling trees take too long to bear fruits. Hence, grafting is most commonly done.
Planting Method For Apricot Farming
Usually, the peach or plum rootstocks are used for grafting methods of apricot rootstock. The rootstock is responsible for the characteristics of growth of the apricot plant. On the other hand, the scion is responsible for the characteristics of the fruit. There is a specific process for grafting of the apricot. The T-graft is also done following certain processes. After the grafting is complete and the setting has established, they must be transplanted to the main field. On transplanting, the grafted plants must not be put too deep or too shallow in the soil. After planting, a light irrigation must be given to the crop. Irrigation is very important at the time of flowering and fruit-bearing.
Spacing And Planting Season For Apricot Farming
Usually, a distance of 5-8 meters is sufficient for the apricot cultivation. The grafts are usually planted in the main field in the months of summer.
Fertiliser And Manure Application For Apricot Farming
The farmyard manure must be applied at the time of land preparation. After that, proper quantities of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus must also be applied in the field in split doses. Micronutrients must also be applied to avoid such deficiency. To make sure that the crop gets proper nutrition, a soil test must be done. Over application of fertilisers must be avoided. After every application of fertiliser, irrigation must be done. Organic manure and bio fertilisers also must be applied to the soil.
Intercultural Operations For Apricot Farming
The weeds must be removed from the crop. Weed removal is necessary especially in the early stages of growth of the apricot plants. The weeds can be controlled by manual methods or by spraying of pesticides. Pruning is an important activity in the apricot crop. Pruning must be done so that the growth of the trees takes place properly. The pruning also ensures proper flowering and fruit formation. Thinning of the fruits is also necessary. Thinning helps to maintain the quality and size of the fruits.
Pest And Disease Control Methods For Apricot Farming
The most common diseases and pests affecting the apricot crop are:
- Powdery mildew
- Big headed worm
The pests and diseases can be controlled by the spraying of appropriate pesticides and chemicals. Others can be avoided if crop management is done properly.
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Yield Of Apricots
The yield of apricots is different for different variety. Also, if the crop is managed properly, the yield will be good. To get a good yield, a very good variety must be used.
The fruits are mature when they reach the desired color and firm. They must be harvested a couple of days before they reach full maturity. The fruits are harvested by hand picking them. Only the fresh and healthy fruits must be collected.
Post-Harvest Management And Marketing Of Apricots
After harvest, the fruits must be cleaned and collected at a place. The fruits must be graded and sorted based on their size and quality. The fresh fruits must be packed and sold for marketing. They can also be stored under proper conditions to be sold later. The fruits must be packed in boxes or cartons. After that, they can be sold in the market.
Benefits Of Apricot
- Apricots contain many essential nutrients. They maintain the health of the bones. It will keep the bones strong and also prevents bone-related
- The apricot oil is good for curing ear problems. it can cure earaches.
- Apricots are rich in iron. Iron is very good for curing anemia and also good for maintaining proper levels of hemoglobin in the body.
- The apricots can help a lot in the weight loss programme. It can keep the stomach full for longer and thus help to reduce cravings.
Apricot Farming – Conclusion
The apricots are important fruits in the market. Their cultivation must be done properly. Huge profits can be earned by selling apricots in the international market. Proper cultivation techniques must be used for apricot farming. Only then, a good yield can be obtained. The quality of the fruits is also important to earn a good price.
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