Basmati Rice Farming – Introduction
Rice is a staple food. The rice and wheat are the two most eaten food grains in the world. The cultivation of rice is also very old. Ever since human beings learned to farm, they have been cultivating the rice and wheat plants. With time, many hybrid varieties were introduced. Today there is every possible variety of rice available in the market. The demand for the different varieties is also very high.
The basmati rice is a favorite variant of rice all over the world. Due to its aroma, the basmati rice has a huge demand all over the world. The basmati rice looks like the long grains of rice and is very fine. The scent of the rice is very popular in the world. The demand for the variety of rice is growing day by day. Therefore, the cultivation has become very important. The basmati rice cultivation is almost similar to normal rice cultivation. But, there are few growing techniques which have to be applied to its cultivation. Since basmati rice is so popular, its cultivation can bring good profits. Proper growing methods must be used to get a high yield.
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Scientific Name of Rice: Oryza sativa
Top Countries Producing Basmati Rice In The World
The basmati rice is traditionally cultivated in India. Almost half of the basmati rice production takes place in India. In India, many states cultivate the basmati rice. After India, it is also produced in Pakistan.
Different Varieties Of Basmati Rice
Traditional Basmati Rice
The traditional basmati rice is that variety of rice which has been cultivated for It is famous for its nice aroma and the long length of rice grains. The traditional varieties which are very common are HBC 19 and 370. These two varieties were very commonly cultivated. In recent years, the cultivation is not much done. it is because these traditional varieties produce a very low quantity of rice. To meet the growing demand, the yield is not enough. So the traditional varieties are replaced by other varieties. The CSR 30 is the new yield of basmati rice which is cultivated now.
Pusa 1121 Basmati
This variety of basmati rice is the finest variety in the world. The best feature of the rice grain is that the volume of the rice grain increases even after it is boiled. The length of the rice grains is the longest among any other varieties. This variety of basmati rice tastes sweet and has a very nice scent. Due to such properties, the variety of rice is also exported to many countries. The farmers also prefer to cultivate this rice more. Because of its high qualities, the price of this rice variety is also very high.
Pusa Basmati 1
The Pusa basmati rice variety is what allowed revolutionizing the spread of basmati rice to the whole world. This is the traditional variety cultivated since years. A lot of hybrid varieties have been created using this variety. This had been done to increase the yield of the variety. The grain length is long and the scent of the rice is quite good. This variety of basmati rice gained popularity in the world.
The basmati rice is very much in demand in the local and the international market. Since years, lots of high yielding and hybrid varieties have been created to meet the growing demands. For cultivating basmati rice, the variety must be selected based on yield, aroma and grain length. These three factors are, most important for its cultivation.
Cultivation Of Basmati Rice
The basmati rice is famous for its taste, smell and texture. So, the cultivation process is important for gaining such qualities. There are two types of basmati rice varieties cultivated. On is fragrant. Another one is nonfragrant. Both the varieties have a very good demand. So, while cultivating the basmati rice, these factors must be considered.
Soil Conditions For The Basmati Rice Farming
The soil required for cultivation of basmati rice is almost the same as the cultivation of normal rice. Heavy soils are referred for basmati rice cultivation. The soil quality should be good and it must be rich in nutrients. The soil must be able to hold water. Moist soil is very important for rice cultivation. the ideal ph for basmati rice cultivation is 5.0-8.0. The ideal soils for the cultivation of basmati rice are loamy and clayey soils. The soil must be well aerated and must have a good quantity of humus. If the soil is saline and is alkaline, the yield will be affected. So, such conditions must be avoided.
Climatic Conditions For Basmati Rice Farming
The basmati rice plant grows well in a moderate climate. Warm sunny days are needed for the growth of the plants. The ideal temperature for the cultivation of basmati rice is 25-35 degree Celsius. The sky must be clear while the growth of the plants and their harvesting. The night temperature must be low. Moderate amount of rainfall is required for the cultivation of basmati rice. The rainfall must be evenly distributed. Frost is very harmful to the cultivation of basmati rice. Too high or too low temperatures are also harmful to basmati rice cultivation. Therefore, such conditions must be avoided. To get a proper yield, the exact climatic conditions must be followed.
Land Preparation For Basmati Rice Farming
For the cultivation of basmati rice, the land preparation is a major thing. First of all, a proper site must be selected. The weeds and other unwanted plants must be removed from the field. After that, the land must be plowed. After plowing the land has to be flooded. The land preparation must be done a months before transplanting of the seedlings. The field must be flooded minimum three days before transplanting the basmati rice seedlings. After the plowing, manure must be added to the soil and then it should be leveled. However, excessive water is also harmful. The water level must be suitable for the cultivation of rice.
Propagation Methods For Basmati Rice Farming
The basmati rice is propagated through seeds. The seeds are sown in nurseries. After that, it is transplanted in the main field. For cultivation of basmati rice, healthy and disease free seeds must be selected. A good variety must be selected for cultivation. Seeds from a high-quality variety must be selected.
Planting Method For Basmati Rice Farming
The seeds are sown in nurseries. In the nursery, the seedlings are germinated and grown. When the seedlings are three weeks old, they must be transplanted to the main field. In the main field, furrows and ridges are made. Two seedlings are sown in the ridges. The field must be puddle before transplanting. In the nursery, the irrigation must be given before uprooting the seedlings. After that, the roots must be washed and then transplanted to the main field.
Spacing And Planting Season For Basmati Rice Farming
The average spacing which must be applied in the rice cultivation is 30cm*25cm. The season for transplanting depends on the variety. Usually, it is done in the month of July.
Irrigation Methods For Basmati Rice Farming
When the field is flooded with water, the condition must be maintained for about two weeks. The field must stay flooded for two weeks. After that, the water will be soaked by the soil. While cultivating basmati rice, the soil should remain moist at all times. The irrigation must be stopped two weeks before harvesting. Irrigation must be given every two days after the field water is soaked up. It is important that the crop is watered regularly during the flowering period. During the rainy season, there is no need for heavy irrigation. The excess water must be drained out of the field. The irrigation must be provided before transplanting of the seedlings.
Fertiliser And Manure Application For Basmati Rice Farming
The manure must be applied in the field at the time of field preparation. After that, the macronutrients must be applied in split doses. Too much nitrogen application must be avoided. It can cause the plants to grow more vegetation. As a result of this, the yield of grain might be decreased. A soil test must be done. After the soil test, the nutrients must be provided in proper quantities. Micronutrients must be provided whichever is needed. The chemical fertilizer must be applied in appropriate doses. Too much use of chemical fertilizers may harm the soil quality. To get a good yield of grains, such conditions must be met.
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Intercultural Operations For Basmati Rice Farming
The problem of weeds in rice cultivation is not much. The crop stays in submerged condition. So, there is not much weed growth. Hand weeding may be done whenever needed. Hoeing might also be done to get rid of the weeds. Chemical pesticides may be applied if needed.
Disease And Pest Control Methods For Basmati Rice Farming
The most common diseases and pests affecting the basmati rice crop is:
- Footrot- seed treatment with Bavistin
- Stemborers- chlorpyriphos application
- Blast- indophil or zineb spray
Apart from these, there are also other pests and diseases which affect the basmati rice crop. The natural enemies of such pest and diseases can be used. Proper insecticides may also be used for the destroyer of the pest and diseases.
Yield Of Basmati Rice
The yield for basmati rice varies and is different for different varieties. The average yield for the rice is 25-35 quintals per hectare of land.
Harvesting Basmati Rice
The harvesting must be done whenever the grains are mature enough. If harvesting is not done on time, the grains might shatter and yield loss happens. When the crop is ripe the plant starts to turn yellow. The grains have a very low moisture content. The crop can be harvested with sickles. The whole plant is cut and heaped.
Post-Harvest Management And Marketing Of Basmati Rice
After harvest, the crop must be dried in the sun. After drying, it must be threshed to separate the grains from the plants. If there is a delay in threshing, the crop loss might take place. When the grains are collected, they must be stored in a proper place. It must be protected from insects and pests. The grains must be stored in controlled temperature conditions.
For marketing, the grains are packed in gunny bags. They can also be individually packed. After cleaning and packing of the grains, they must be sent to the market for selling. For long distance selling, they can be sold in trucks or other vehicles. For local markets, they can be sold loose.
Benefits Of Basmati Rice
- The basmati rice can help to prevent cancer. It contains compounds which can help to fight cancer.
- Basmati rice is good for the diabetic people. It can help to control the blood sugar level of the body.
- Basmati rice is rich in fibers. Due to its high fiber content, it can help to control hunger for long. For that, people can control their diet.
- The basmati rice can help to relieve constipation. Due to its fiber content, it can prove to be beneficial in such cases.
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Basmati Rice Farming – Conclusion
The basmati rice is a highly popular and a favorite rice variety all over the world. The cultivation of this rice variety can be very profitable if done properly. There are also some premium varieties which may fetch more prices. So, the cultivation must be done properly. Export of this variety of rice is done in many countries. It is a very popular and favorite rice variety. Therefore, the farming method is very important.