Breadfruit Farming – Introduction
The breadfruit might be a bit uncommon name in the world of fruits. But, the cultivation of uncommon fruits has picked up the pace in the recent years. Breadfruit is one of the rare fruits which is cultivated by many farmers. The breadfruit term is given to the fruits because of its bread-like texture of the fruit when they are almost ripe. Otherwise, the flavor of the fruit is like a potato.
The fruit looks like a jackfruit on the outside. This is because of the skin of the fruit. The fruit forms the staple diet of many cultures. The timber of the plant is also used for making certain lightweight structures. The latex of the tree is also used for many purposes. There are many varieties of breadfruit which are cultivated across the world. So, choosing a suitable variety for cultivation will not be a difficult task. Just like bread, the fruit is rich in starch. The fruit can be eaten in many ways like baked, roasted, boiled or fried. The fruit can also be eaten as a processed food. In any case, proper cultivation of this fruit can give good profit.
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Scientific Name of Breadfruit: Artocarpus altilis
Top Breadfruit Producing Countries In The World
The breadfruit grows naturally from the Malayan archipelago to the western part of Micronesia. The plant was later brought to the west indies from the Philippines. Today it is cultivated in developing and developed countries equally.
Name Of Breadfruit In Different Languages
|Language||Ways to say breadfruit|
|Chinese Simplified||面包果(miànbāo guǒ)|
|Chinese Traditional||麵包果(miànbāo guǒ)|
Varieties Of Breadfruit Cultivated Across The World
The fruits are shaped like an ellipse. The fruits have a large size. Fruits have the weight of 4.5 kgs. The pulp has a light yellow color. The pulp turns smooth when cooked. The flavor is pleasant. The variety is of high quality. The core of the fruit is oblong in shape. The variety of breadfruit shows many branches. The rind of the fruit has long green colored spines. This variety is best cultivated in moist areas where there is heavy rainfall.
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The fruits are ellipsoidal in shape. The fruits are larger in size. The rind has a yellowish green color. The rind is thick and spiny. The core of the fruit is oblong in shape. The pulp is bright yellow in color and is moist. The taste of the fruit is sweet. The fruit is eaten best roasted. The tree is tall and elegant to look.
The fruit is ellipsoidal in shape. The fruits are large in shape. Rind is yellowish green in color. The rind has brown spots. The rind is tough. The pulp is light yellow in color and is dry and flaky in texture. The flavor of the fruit is delicious. The core is long in shape and is slim.
The fruit is round in shape with a width of six inches. The rind of the fruit is bright yellow-green in color. It also has patches of red-brown. The rind is rough with spines on it. The color of the pulp is cream colored and has a smooth texture when it is cooked. The flavor of the pulp is very good and turns smooth when cooked. The trees of this variety bear a large number of fruits. This variety of breadfruit is very common in many countries.
The fruit has an obovoid The rind of the fruit is yellowish green in color and it has red-brown spots. The pulp of the fruit is light yellow in color. It is firm and smooth in texture. When it is cooked, the pulp turns a little acidic and dry. The flavor of the fruit pulp is excellent. The shape of the core is oblong and is large. The fruit is easy to cook and takes less time. The tree is very tall and bears the fruit in clusters. This variety of breadfruit is best grown in dry locations.
Land Preparation For The Breadfruit Farming
The land must be prepared thoroughly for the cultivation of any crop. A proper land preparation is important for the growth of plants and good yield of the crop. The land must be made free of all weeds and items which are unnecessary for the cultivation of the present crop. After that, it must be ploughed several times. Ploughing makes the soil smooth and fine. After ploughing, proper quantities of farmyard manure must be mixed to the soil. this will increase the fertility. Ploughing must be followed by harrowing and leveling. Drainage channels must be made in the field so that extra water can be drained out.
Soil Conditions For Breadfruit Farming
For cultivation of breadfruit, the fertile and well-drained soil is necessary. Deep soils with lots of organic matter must be used to cultivate breadfruit plants. Sandy soils are the best for its cultivation. But, this might be true for most of the varieties. Another type of soils can be used for its cultivation as well. There are many varieties of breadfruit plants. Each variety is suited separately to a different type of climatic zones and soil types. So, based on the variety, the selection must be made. A good soil is very important to get good quality fruits and so it must be maintained. It is better if the ph of the soil is kept around neutral.
Climatic Conditions For Breadfruit Farming
The breadfruit tree is basically a crop of the tropical region. The ideal temperature for the cultivation of breadfruit tree is 60 degree to 100 degrees Fahrenheit. An annual rainfall of 200-250 cm is required for the cultivation of breadfruit. The relative humidity of 70-80 percent is sufficient for the growth of breadfruit plants. The plants are best cultivated at a height of 3500ft from the sea level. Dry regions are best suited for the cultivation of breadfruit plants. In some areas, it is also grown below 2000ft. Extreme temperatures must be avoided for the cultivation of the plants.
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Propagation Methods For The Breadfruit Farming
The breadfruit is generally propagated through seeds. the vegetative methods by using suckers. The suckers can emerge from the roots. For choosing the suckers, proper pruning of the parent tree must be done. There is a proper method for the induction of the suckers. The best dimension of the root cuttings would be 10 inches long and 1-2 inches thick. Grafting or budding of the breadfruit scions can be done in jackfruit trees successfully. The cuttings are first grown under controlled conditions in nurseries. They are grown in a mixture of sand, soil, and manure. When they have developed a good root system, they must be transplanted to the main field.
Planting System Breadfruit Farming
For planting of the breadfruit plants in the main field, pits must be dug. For the pit dimensions, it must be 15 inches deep and the width must be 3 ft. The pits must be dug beforehand and exposed to the sunlight. They must be filled with soil and manure. After planting, a light irrigation must be provided. During planting, it must be taken care that the root system is not damaged.
Planting Season And Plant Density For The Breadfruit Farming
The breadfruit trees can be grown in almost any time of the year. The fruiting season varies for each variety. Also, the season and climate of the place also matter. It is best to plant before the monsoon.
The usual planting density is about 25 numbers of trees per acre.
Irrigation Methods For Breadfruit Farming
The first irrigation must be given at the time of planting of the breadfruit plants. After that, the irrigation must be provided accordingly. In dry and humid weather, enough irrigation is needed. The watering of the plants is very important especially at the time of flowering and fruit formation. For saving water, sprinkler irrigation can be used. In rainy days, no irrigation is required. But, if there is excess rainfall, the water must be drained out of the field. In winter and frost conditions, watering is given to protect the plants from harsh conditions. For irrigating, water which is not saline must be used.
Manure And Fertiliser Application For Breadfruit Farming
The well-decomposed manure must be applied at the time of land preparation. A soil test must be done before applying any fertilizers. After that, manure or fertilizers must be applied. Appropriate quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium must be applied accordingly. The proper nutrition is important especially at the time of growth period. Depending on the deficiencies, micronutrients must also be applied. Care must be taken so that excessive application of fertilizers is not done. This will cause the soil to damage. After every application of fertilizers, irrigation must be given. Manures and organic fertilizers must also be applied.
Intercultural Operations For Breadfruit Farming
The weeds must be removed from the breadfruit crop as soon as possible. For removal of weeds, manual or chemical or combination of both the methods must be used. All the methods can be effectively used for controlling the weeds. Thinning must be done so that only the healthy plants are kept in the field and the unhealthy ones are sorted out.
Pest And Disease Control Method For Breadfruit Farming
The most common pests and disease affecting the breadfruit crop are:
- Soft rot
- Root rot
- Stem Rot
All the diseases and pests are caused by some way or the other. Proper crop management can help to control the diseases and pests. In case of heavy attack, chemicals and pesticides may be applied for controlling the pest and diseases. Proper seed treatment and nutrition management will help to avoid the many diseases and pests in the crop.
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Yield Of Breadfruit
The average yield of breadfruit is about 16-32 tonnes per hectare. Though, there are reports of even higher yield. The yield depends on the variety which is cultivated. Yield also depends on the area of cultivation of the breadfruit.
The breadfruit must be harvested when they are mature. When drops of latex are seen on the surface of the fruits, the fruits must be harvested. the fruits must be harvested by picking by hand. Care should be taken so that the fruits are not damaged or bruised.
Post-Harvest Management And Marketing Of Breadfruit
After harvesting, the fruits must be cleaned and stored properly. The fresh and healthy and fully mature fruits must be selected for marketing purposes. It is better if the fruits are sold fresh in the market. The fruits must be sorted and graded. After that, they have to be packed carefully in cartons so as not to damage them.
Benefits Of Breadfruit
- Breadfruit is rich in potassium. The potassium is good for the heart. So, the fruit is good for the heart.
- The breadfruit is rich in fibers. It helps to control diabetes. It is good for diabetic patients.
- The breadfruit when toasted can be beneficial for a toothache. It can help to provide relief from the ache.
- The leaves of breadfruit and the ashes when burnt are very useful to cure the infections of the skin. in such conditions, it can be beneficial.
- Breadfruit has anti-inflammatory properties hence it can cure skin inflammations.
Breadfruit Farming – Conclusion
The breadfruit is a lesser known fruit among various other fruits. It is packed with many important nutrients which are essential for the human body. Therefore, the cultivation of breadfruit must be done commercially more. There is always a very good demand for good quality fruits in the market. They will also yield higher profits.
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