Casuarina Tree Farming – Introduction
Casuarina is a beneficial tree known as the evergreen tree. This tree can be grown up in a wide range of environments. This tree grows fast and investing in this tree farming is beneficial for various reasons. The height of mature casuarina tree reaches up to 100 feet. Its diameter becomes 60cm. the average lifespan of this tree is up to 50 years. The availability of these trees is remarkable in the tropical and subtropical area. The branches of the delicate tree are slender and terminal.
This tree works well in fertilizing the soil and fixing the nitrogen of the atmosphere in the soil.A tree grows well under the shades and on the slopes. It can also be grown well at the place where the windbreaks. Grows well in various parts of the world and keeps the soil well. It can also protect the soil from erosion. Farming these trees and investing at commercial level can beneficial for you. The benefits of farming this tree can help you to get good revenue. But to grow this tree at the commercial level, you need to know the proper process of its cultivation.
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Scientific name of casuarinas: Casuarina equisetifolia
Top-Rated Places Cultivate Casuarinas
The cultivation of casuarinas is remarkable in various parts of Asia. Specifically, the southern part of Asia is known as a good place for producing the casuarinas. Apart from this place this tree also grows well in the Islands, Australia, and the western Pacific Ocean.
Different Types Of Casuarinas
The high yield variations of casuarinas trees include IFGTB CE1, CE2, CE3, CE4, CJ 9 and 10.
Required Climate For Casuarina Tree Farming
The hot climate is considered as fruitful for farming the casuarinas. Up to 40 degrees, the centigrade temperature is tolerable for the casuarina trees. But the extreme temperature of the coastal area can be harmful to the casuarinas growth. The South West and Northeastern weather are perfect for growing the casuarinas trees. A good amount of rainfall is also necessary for growing up the casuarinas trees. The amount of rainfall should be within 900 to 3700mm. low amount of rainfall can be harmful to the casuarinas tree growth.
Perfect Soil For Casuarina Tree Farming
The perfect soil type for growing casuarinas trees is sandy loam soil. The proper drainage system in this soil is required for proper growth of the casuarina trees. The pH level of the soil should be within 5.5 to 6.5 for ideal growth of the casuarinas trees. These trees can tolerate the pH level from 4.5 to 7.5. The frost condition and moisture of the soil should be avoided while growing up the casuarinas trees. The fertility of the soil can be improved by cultivating this type of tree.
Proper Land Preparation Process To Follow In Casuarinas Tree Farming
The land should be well prepared by following the disc ploughing system. You should also clear the bushes and keep the soil well prepared for the good growth of the casuarinas trees. The proper fine tilth stage of the soil and level is required for growing the trees properly.
Transplanting, Spacing, And Propagation Of The Casuarina Tree Farming
The ideal period for planting casuarinas tree is from June to September. You can also plant the trees from December to January. Young shoots rooting and the seeds can be used for propagating the casuarinas trees.
Growth Of The Casuarinas Trees At Nursery Stage
The seedlings of the casuarinas trees grow well at nursery. Then it can be transplanted on the main field. Usually, the casuarinas seeds start to germinate from the 5th or 6th day. The straw should be removed carefully on the 7th day. After this step, the seedlings should be grown on the motherland at least one month. Then these seedlings reach the height of 8 to 10 cm. At this stage, the seedlings should be transferred to the 15cm X 7cm size Polybag. The size of the beds should be the same size of the main beds.
The proper amount of farmyard manure and soil should be added to the sand to increase the water holding capacity of the farm and keep the casuarinas trees growing. The distance between two seedlings in the secondary beds should be 4cm. The seedlings should be there at least 90 days and within this time the seedlings reach up to the height of 35 to 50 cm. the collar diameter should reach up to 4mm to 5mm. G seedlings can make a record growth if established well in the containers.
Process Of Transplantation
The seedlings can be transplanted on the main field when these stages are over. The pits on the main field should be prepared well by digging in the size of 30cm X 30cm X 30 cm. The proper amount of manures should be given on the field and the pits to get a good result in growing up the casuarinas trees farming. The distance between two plants should be 1.5 meter X 1.5 meter on the main field.
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Irrigation Process To Follow In Casuarina Tree Farming
Proper irrigation process is always good to get the beneficial result in farming. Timely irrigation is needed to maintain the quality of the casuarinas trees farming. Less amount of water supplying or excessive water supply both are harmful to the growth of the casuarinas trees farming. An irrigation process after every 10 to 12 days is necessary for cultivating the casuarinas trees. The first irrigation on the field of casuarinas trees should be applied immediately after transplanting the seedlings. You can also install the drip system on the mainland for maintaining irrigation process and fertilizer manures. In this case, the government of India can give you a subsidy.
Fertilizers And Manures For Casuarina Tree Farming
The casuarinas tree response well, in return for proper farmyard manures application. Well decomposed farmyard manures should be applied. 500 gm of 600gm manure is perfect for cultivating the casuarinas trees at a commercial level. Vermicomposting manure in an amount of 250 to 300 gm can be ideal for the good growth of the plants.
Nitrogen is not needed at a large amount to grow up the casuarinas trees. Only 40 to 45 kg nitrogen per hector can be applied in 4 different yet equal doses. Apart from these, you should apply superphosphate, and Muriate of Potash to keep the land more ideal for casuarinas trees farming.
Inter Cropping Process In Casuarinas Tree Farming
In the first year of casuarinas trees cultivation, expert farmers select watermelon, sesame, groundnut, pulse crops and more for intercropping. This can help the investor to increase the profit margin.
Intercultural Operations To Follow In Casuarina Tree Farming
To get a fruitful result from the casuarinas trees farming, one should make it clear that the land is weed free. A rotavator ploughing system is necessary to suppress the growth of the weeds on the land. The weeding process of the casuarinas trees farming should be checked once in every week at least for first three months of a plantation. Then it can be done once in a month.
Know The Pruning Process Of Casuarinas Tree Farming
Pruning is another important step that you need to take to keep the growth of the plants accurate. The side branches of the trees should be cut and keep the growth and the framework of the trees proper. The side branches of the casuarinas trees should be trimmed properly after the second and third year of plantation.
Diseases And Pests Of The Casuarina Tree Farming
The pests and the diseases of the casuarina trees should be avoided to get a good result in farming. The diseases like Indarbela quadrinotata, Stem borer are common pests of the casuarinas trees. These problems are mostly found in Kenya and Australia.
Another disease is dryness of the main stem tree leaves. The tree leaves of the main stem should be protected from this particular problem. The trees with this problem should be burnt to protect the other trees. This disease is known as wilts or blisters.
If you find any kind of abnormal symptom on the plants or the growth of the plants is not proper then you should check it and call the experts in need.
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Harvesting In The Casuarina Tree Farming
The harvesting process of the casuarinas trees farming is very important to get the best result. In this case, the normal rotation period of this tree is 4 years and the irrigation process should be followed at this time of harvesting. You can also harvest this plant under the rainfed condition at the rotation of 6 years.
Yield In Casuarina Tree Farming
The final yield of the casuarinas trees depends on the soil type, climate, process of cultivation and more. The proper irrigation process and fertilizer applications are needed to follow to get the best result. You can get 125 to 150 tones air-dried woods from the one hector land. The quantity of the woods depends on the irrigation and rainfed condition.
Benefits Of Casuarinas Tree Farming
You can get various advantages from the casuarinas trees. The casuarinas trees have various uses that can make you profitable in other ways as well.
- It can be used in the fuel purposes.
- The paper industry uses these casuarinas trees in their production.
- Good to use in fencing
- Casuarinas trees can protect other crops.
- It plays an important role in improving the condition of the soils.
Conclusion Of Casuarinas Tree Farming
You can invest in this plant to earn good revenue. The investment cost of this farming is less as well. The lower amount of maintenance cost of the casuarinas trees farming can increase the profit margin. This planting process is easy to follow. It is always better to make a previous plan of the investment and get back the return. The previous plan of investment plan can make your farming process secure. You can also take advice from the experts to increase the profit margin in casuarinas farming.
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