Chrysanthemum Farming – Introduction
Flower farming is very common these days. The most common reason is that flowers are used everywhere- birth, anniversaries, funerals and every other important occasion. Flower plants are only grown for the flowers which bloom. The chrysanthemum is basically an ornamental plant. The other parts of the plant are also used.
Chrysanthemums generally naturally grow in Asia and northern and eastern part of Europe. There are many varieties of chrysanthemums which cannot be counted. Due to its huge popularity, many new varieties of the flowering plant have been discovered and recognized. The plants which grow in the wild are generally shrubs. The cultivation gained popularity in Japan. After that, many new varieties, colors and shapes of the flowering plant have been released since. The flowers mainly bloom in autumn and winter. They are also the favorite flowers of many places. This is the reason there is such a huge demand for the flowers. The chrysanthemum plant is also said to reduce air pollution which is caused indoors. The cultivation of chrysanthemum must be done carefully. Proper nutrition and irrigation must be given so that the plants produce good quality flowers.
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The scientific name of chrysanthemum: chrysanthemum morifolium
Top Countries Producing Chrysanthemum Farming
- United States
- Costa Rica
- Netherlands Holland
- United Kingdom
Name Of Chrysanthemum In Different Languages
|Language||Ways to say chrysanthemum|
|Nepali||ओपेरा कार्टून अक्षर|
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Different Varieties Of Chrysanthemum Farming
This variety of chrysanthemum is an early flowering type. The plant takes 104 days for the flowering. The flowers have a large size. They have a yellow core and the flower petals are white in color. The diameter of the flower is large. The yield of this variety of chrysanthemum is 30.59 tonnes per hectare.
This variety of chrysanthemum was developed in Lucknow. The flower is of reflexed type. The plant bears large flowers. The ray florets of this flower are narrow or broad. The flowers look globular and are also flattened. The average size of the flower is about 15-20 cm.
This variety of chrysanthemum was developed in Lucknow. This variety of chrysanthemum also develops large flowers. In this variety too, the blooms may look globular to flatten. The size of the bloom may be 15-20 cm.
This variety is mainly used for decorative purposes. The flower size of this variety is small. There are ray florets and due to this reason, the disc cannot be seen. The ray florets may be regularly or irregularly reflexed in position.
This variety of chrysanthemum bears the small size of flowers. The ray florets of this variety have a small size and are very broad and short. The florets are arranged in a way so that the flower achieves a hemispherical shape. The flower disc is normally open or is closed partially.
This variety produces large sized flowers and they are white in color. The ray florets of this variety of chrysanthemum are broad and short. The flower disc might be closed or open partially.
This variety is popular for its higher yields. The number of flowering shoots in every plant is more compared to other varieties. The number of flowers is also more in comparison to other varieties. The characteristic feature of this variety is the purple color of the flowers.
The flowers of this variety of chrysanthemum are canary yellow in color and are of medium size. The stalks of the flowers are strong and thick. This is an early flowering variety and the blooming period also lasts for a longer time. The average yield for this variety is 16.7 tonnes per hectare of land.
This is a high yielding variety created in Lucknow. This is a decorative flowering variety. The flowers are red in color. There are five whorls of ray florets in the flower. The flower disc is hardly visible due to the ray florets.
This high yielding variety of chrysanthemum was also developed in Lucknow. This plant bears one single flower which is large in size. The ray florets of the flower are long and have an elongated size. The florets have four whorls. The flower disc is hardly visible.
This improved variety of chrysanthemum produces large flowers. The flower has ray florets which can be narrow or broad. The florets are so formed as to form a ball shape of the flower.
This variety of chrysanthemum plant bears large sized flowers. The ray florets of the flower are tube-shaped. This floret might have open ends or closed ends. They are either hooked or coiled. The rays either fall or spread.
This variety of chrysanthemum bears small sized flowers. The ray florets of this flower are short and broad and are arranged uniformly which gives the flower a hemisphere like a shape. The flower disc may be open or closed.
The flowering time for this variety is about 102 days. The height of the plant is 38 cms and the plant can bear near about 150 flowers. The flowers are white in color and the middle of the flowers may be cream or yellow. The diameter of the flowers is about 5.5 cm. This variety is easy to cultivate. This is because it does not require any training or pruning and also does not need any support.
This variety matures late in the season and takes about 141 days to start flowering. The plant can grow as tall as 45 cm. The plant bears flowers which are pink or purple in color. The flowers grow in bunches. A single plant can bear about 201 flowers in this variety. This variety can also be planted in pots.
Cultivation Of Chrysanthemum
The cultivation of chrysanthemum is very common and has increased over the past few years. The cultivation must be done using proper procedures so that the flower is of good quality. It is better if the flowers are grown in greenhouses. They grow better in such conditions. Proper nutrition and irrigation is a must for a good crop and better quality of flowers.
Land Preparation For Chrysanthemum Farming
The land must be selected based on the area required for cultivation. After that, all the weeds and waste matter from the previous cultivation must be removed. The land must be ploughed 2-3 times. It must be done to make the soil texture smooth and fine. After that, harrowing must be done. After ploughing, proper quantities of well-decomposed farmyard manure must be mixed with the soil. Drainage channels must be made into the soil to drain away the excess water.
Soil Conditions For Chrysanthemum Farming
The soil for the cultivation of chrysanthemum must be well drained and must be well aerated also. The ideal ph of the soil must be 6-7. The chrysanthemum plants can be grown in any type of good soil. But the red loamy soil is best for growing the plants. The organic content of the soil must be good. Since it is a flowering plant, the soil must be good. The soil must not have extreme conditions.
Climatic Conditions For Chrysanthemum Farming
The ideal temperature for growing chrysanthemum is 18-40 degree Celsius. It is best to be cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates. An average rainfall of about 80-100 cm is required for the proper growth of the plants. The chrysanthemum must be cultivated so that it receives short duration of the day during flowering.
Propagation Methods For Chrysanthemum Farming
The propagation of the chrysanthemum is through suckers or through cuttings. The terminal cutting is done by taking cuttings above 4-5 cm above the ground. The root cuttings must be treated with proper chemicals. For suckers, they are cut so that they are cut just above the ground. After they are suitable for planting, they are separated from the mother plant and planted to the main field.
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Planting Methods For Chrysanthemum Farming
The plants must be grown in greenhouses so that the yield is good. In the main field, they must be grown under proper conditions. After planting, a light irrigation must be given.
Planting season and spacing for the cultivation of chrysanthemum
The planting for the chrysanthemum must be done in June-July. The average spacing of 30cm*30cm must be applied to the crop.
Irrigation Method For Chrysanthemum Farming
The irrigation must be given depending upon the weather and the moisture content of the soil. The soil must be properly drained as the waterlogged conditions are not good for the growth of chrysanthemum plants. In the first month, two irrigations are sufficient per week. Afterward. Irrigation per week can be given to the plants. During the rainy season, there is no need for heavy irrigation. The extra water must be drained out of the field.
Manure And Fertiliser Application For Chrysanthemum Farming
The well-decomposed farmyard manure must be applied at the time of land preparation. After that, proper doses of macronutrients like nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus must be applied. A soil test must be made before application of fertilizers. Micronutrients must also be applied so that there is no deficiency of micronutrients. The fertilizers must not be applied in excess. It makes the soil dry and barren.
Intercultural Operations For Chrysanthemum Farming
The intercultural operation for the cultivation includes pinching. The buds must be pinched off so that there is the proper growth of lateral branches in the plants. The weeds must be removed time to time to so that it does not hamper the growth of the chrysanthemum plants. Chemical methods or natural methods can be used for the removal of the weeds. Desuckering is also an important activity. It is done by removing the side suckers from time to time.
Disease And Pest Management For Chrysanthemum Farming
The most common pests and diseases of chrysanthemum cultivation are:
- root rot- soil treatment with difenoconazole or copper oxychloride
- aphids- metasystox or color spray
- caterpillar- nuvacron or ekalux spray
- wilt- dithane spray
- plant hoppers- profenofos or rogor spray
- black leaf spot- dithane or zineb spray
- powdery mildew- kerathane spray
Yield Of Chrysanthemum
With proper crop management, an average yield of 15-50 quintals of flowers can be obtained per acre.
Harvest And Post-Harvest Management Of Chrysanthemum
The crop takes about 5-6 months for flowering. The fully open flowers are harvested. Cut carefully from the stem and sold in the market. Can be sold loose as cut flowers or for other purposes too. They must be put carefully in bamboo baskets to be sold. For long-distance transportation, they can be put in cold storage and then sold in the market.
Benefits Of Chrysanthemum
- The tea made from chrysanthemum is very beneficial for heart patients. It improves the cardiovascular health.
- If heat rash occurs in the body, taking the chrysanthemum tea helps. It helps to reduce the rashes.
- Eye health can be improved in a lot of ways by taking the chrysanthemum tea. It helps to reduce a lot of symptoms of an eye such as watering eyes, blurred vision, and other minor infections.
- Drinking chrysanthemum tea can provide relief from common colds. It helps to relieve the symptoms of fevers. It produces a cooling effect in fevers.
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Chrysanthemum Farming – Conclusion
The chrysanthemums are a favorite among many other flowers. The cultivation process must be properly followed so that maximum yield can be obtained. The chrysanthemum has a huge demand in the overseas market as well. Therefore, a proper sale of the flowers must be done so that maximum profit can be obtained.