Peach Fruit Farming – Introduction
The peach is a delicious fruit which is very popular in the world. It is a small fruit. The skin is hairy and the flesh is sweet. There is one single large seed inside the fruit. The flesh is the edible portion of the fruit.
The peach cultivation is also very common. Peach is used as a fresh fruit for selling. It is used in desserts. The delicious fruit is also used as an item for cooking many dishes. Peach is also full of many important nutrients. This is why it should be included in the daily diet. Apart from health benefits, it is also very good for the skin. Therefore, the extract of peach is used in the preparation of cosmetics. Peach usually requires chilling hours. It is cultivated in colder areas. In other places, the fruit can be cultivated in colder seasons. The peach is a delicate fruit. So, to get a good yield, proper farming techniques must be followed. The demand for peach is quite high in the international market. It also fetches a very good price. So, cultivation of peach can be a very profitable business.
Read Broccoli Farming
Scientific Name of Peach: Prunus persica
Top Countries Producing Peach In The World
|Rank||Country||Production (millions of tons)|
Common Name Of Peach In Other Languages
|Language||Ways to say peach|
|Marathi||सुदंर आकर्षक मुलगी|
Read Toor Dal Farming
Different Varieties Of Peach Cultivated Across The World
This variety of peach is ready for harvest in the middle of the season. The skin of the fruit is golden yellow in color. The flesh is yellow in color. This peach variety has a delicious flavor. It is a type of freestone peach variety.
This variety of peach fruit can be harvested early. The skin and the flesh are both yellow in color hence the name. The skin is yellow with streaks of red in it. This variety of peach fruit is semi clingstone type. It means that the flesh will stick to the stone partially. The shape of the fruit is round and it is medium in size.
This is a freestone type of peach fruit. The peach fruit is sunken in the center like a doughnut. The size of the fruit is medium. The skin of the fruit is white in color with streaks of red in it. This is an early harvesting variety of peach fruit. The flesh is also white in color with a moderately sweet taste.
The Elberta variety of plant produces largely sized peach. The fruit looks attractive with a golden red color. The flesh is yellow in color. Taste of the fruit is slightly bitter. This variety can be harvested in the middle of the season.
This variety of peach is from California. The trees are dwarf genetically. The size of the fruits is quite large. The fruit skin has a pink to red color. The flesh of the empress variety of peach is very juicy and sweet to taste. This is a variety of late harvest.
This variety of peach produces medium sized fruits. The skin is slightly yellow in color with streaks of red in it. The flesh is yellow in color and the taste is slightly tangy. This is a freestone variety of peach. The harvesting time can vary from the middle of the season to late.
The gold dust variety has a fruit skin which has streaks of red in it. The size of the fruits can be small to medium. The flesh of the fruit is yellow in color and has a very good taste. This is a type of early harvesting variety. It is freestone in nature.
This peach fruit variety is a type of clingstone. It produces large sized fruits. The skin and the flesh of the peach are yellow in color. The texture of the flesh is soft but does not melt. It is the type of late harvesting variety of peach fruit.
This variety of peach fruit is large. The skin of the fruit is yellow with hints of red in it. The flesh is firm and it is of freestone variety. The flesh has a yellow color. This variety is of late harvest and about the time of Halloween hence the name.
Indian Blood Cling
The Indian blood cling is a peach fruit variety which is medium in size. The fruit has a red colored skin. The flesh has a yellow color with streaks of red. The flavor is very rich. Due to its taste, it is best used for making preserves. This is a type of clingstone variety. It is also a type of late harvesting variety of peach fruit.
The Madison is a peach fruit variety which is medium in size. The fruit skin is orange in color with a hint of red over it. The flesh is also reddish orange in color. The flesh is firm and has a fine texture. This is a freestone variety of peach fruit. Due to its rich flavor, this variety of peach can be used fresh, canned or frozen. Also, the flesh of the fruit does not brown.
The fruit is medium sized. The skin of the fruit is greenish yellow and has red streaks in it. The flesh of the fruit is smooth, yellow and has a fine texture. The flavor of the fruit is very fine and the stone is very small. This is a freestone variety of peach fruit. The fruit is best-harvested
Cultivation Of Peach Fruit
For peach cultivation, specific climatic and soil conditions must be met. Selecting a good variety of peach is important. Also, maintaining proper farming conditions is important to get good quality fruits. The nutrition also plays an important factor to decide the yield.
Read Litchi Farming
Soil Conditions For Peach Fruit Farming
The peach trees need deep soils for growth. So, light soils must be avoided. The soil must have a good content of organic matter in it. The peach can be cultivated in a variety of soils. The best soil for peach cultivation is sandy or loamy soils. Peach trees and seedlings cannot tolerate waterlogged conditions. So, such conditions must be avoided. The soil must be well drained. The ideal ph for the cultivation of peach is 5.8-6.8. Too many acidic or alkaline soils must not be used for peach fruit farming.
Climatic Conditions For Peach Fruit Farming
Peach fruit can be best cultivated in hills or hilly areas. With proper conditions, it can be grown in the plain areas too. The ideal temperature for growing peach fruit is 25-30 degree Celsius. An annual average rainfall of 200-300mm is sufficient for the cultivation of peach fruits. The peach trees need a minimum amount of chilling hours. So, while cultivation of peach, it must be kept in mind.
Land Preparation For Peach Fruit Farming
The weeds must be cleared in the land. After that, ploughing must be done few times. Well decomposed farmyard manure must be mixed with the soil after ploughing. For planting, seed beds must be made. Proper drainage channels must be made in the field. This will help to drain away the excess water.
Propagation Methods For Peach Fruit Farming
The propagation for peach cultivation is done by grafting and by seeds. For grafting, the one-year-old rootstock is selected. For seed propagation, healthy and disease free seeds must be selected. Budding is also used as a method for peach fruit propagation.
Planting Methods For Peach Fruit Farming
The budded or grafted plants or seedlings are grown in nurseries and when they develop proper roots, they are transplanted to the main field. For sowing the seeds, proper seed sowing equipment must be used. The seeds must be sown at least 5cm deep inside the soil. Pits of dimension 0.75*0.75*0.75 cm must be dug in the main field. These pits are used for transplanting the grafted/budded plants or seedlings. After planting, a light irrigation must be given.
Planting Season, Spacing For Peach Fruit Farming
An average spacing of 6.5m*6.5m may be used for cultivation of peach. the transplantation of seedlings are done in December- January.
Nutrition Management For Peach Fruit Farming
Well decomposed farmyard manure must be applied at the time of land preparation. After that, the macronutrients must be applied in split doses. The fertilizers of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus must be applied after a soil test. Overuse of fertilizers must be avoided. After every time fertilizer is applied, irrigation must be given.
Irrigation Methods For Peach Fruit Farming
The first irrigation must be given at the time of planting. After that, irrigation is essential at the time of flowering and fruit formation. In the rainy season, irrigation is not required frequently. In case of excess rainfall, the water must be drained out of the land. Drip irrigation can be used for saving water. After fertilizer application, irrigation is a must. In dry and humid weather, regular irrigation must be given.
Read Malabar Neem Farming
Intercultural Operations For Peach Fruit Farming
The weeds in the peach farm must be removed when they emerge. They can be removed by manual or chemical methods. Application of herbicides is the best option for control of weeds. The peach trees must be pruned heavily at regular intervals.
Intercropping of peach can be done to add extra income. Crops such as vegetables, lentils, chili, French bean, ginger, rice etc can be used as an intercrop with the peach crop.
Pest And Disease Control Peach Fruit Farming
The most common diseases and pests affecting the peach cultivation are:
- Bacterial canker- copper spray
- Leaf curl aphid- rogor spray
- Flat-headed borer- seed treatment with durmet
- Brown rot- captan spray
- Shot hole- thiram or captan spray
- Black aphid- malathion spray
- Beetles- hexavin spray
Yield Of Peach Fruits
On an average, about 20-30 kg of fruits can be harvested from each tree.
Harvesting Peach Fruits
The peach trees take about 2-3 years to reach maturity for harvest. When the fruits attain good color and are firm and ripe, they must be harvested. the fruits can be harvested by hand picking. Only the ripe fruits must be picked.
Post-Harvest Management And Marketing Of Peach Fruits
After harvesting, the fruits must be washed and cleaned. They are sorted out and graded based on size and quality. The fresh and healthy fruits must be packed for selling in the market. Fresh fruits must be sold. The fruits can also be stored under controlled conditions. They are packed in boxes or crates to be sold in the market.
Benefits Of Peach
- Peach is rich in Vitamin-C. It is extremely beneficial for the skin. It keeps the skin healthy and problem free.
- Peach is a very good source of antioxidants. Consuming peaches daily can prevent many diseases.
- Peaches can help to prevent cancer. It has some anti-cancer compounds which might help to prevent many types of cancer.
- Peaches also contain compounds which are good for the eyes. It can keep the eyes healthy and protect from diseases.
- Peach contains dietary fiber. The fiber helps in digestion of food and prevents stomach disorders.
Read Cocoa Farming
Peach Fruit Farming – Conclusion
The peach is a very delicious and healthy fruit. It has a very good demand all over the world. The demand for good quality peach fruits is also very high. So, the cultivation must be done accordingly. Modern and advanced techniques must be adopted for peach fruit farming. Proper nutrition must be given to the trees. The fruits also must be handled carefully. They must not be damaged. This is how sales of peach fruit can be increased and profit can be made.