Soybean Farming – Introduction
Almost majority of the population in the world is nonvegetarian. Nonvegetarian food definitely provides the body with the much-needed proteins for building muscles and the regular wear and tear. But that does not mean that vegetarian food does not provide the body with the equal amount of protein like animal foods.
In fact, there are many vegetarian foods which provide the same amount of protein which is gained by consumption of nonvegetarian foods. Soybean is one such food which is rich in protein and is a favorite among the vegetarians and nonvegetarians alike. The soybean, when cooked properly even tastes like meat. It is one of the richest sources of protein. Soybean has been cultivated for a long time.
Today, apart from the succulent beans, there are so many forms of soybean available in the market. It is an excellent health supplement for bodybuilders. Soymilk is already popular among other types of milk. The rising concern among people regarding health has forced many to switch from nonvegetarian to vegetarian diet. This has led to a revolutionary increase in consumption of the soybeans. Hence, to match the demand, production is also needed. Therefore, soybean cultivation can prove to be very beneficial both in terms of market value and profit.
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Scientific Name of Soybean: Glycine max
Top Soybean Producing Countries In The World
|Rank||Country||Soybean Production||% of World Total|
|1||United States||91,389,350 t||32.80%|
Common Name Of Soybean In Different Languages
|Language||Ways to say soybean|
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Different Varieties Of Soybean Cultivation
This high yielding variety of plant bears white flowers and has a yellow colored seed coat. This variety is resistant to bacterial pustules and is tolerant to yellow mosaic.
This variety has many sub cultivars under it. It is resistant to a lot of bacterial diseases and tolerant to many pests. The plant bears fruits which are purple colored and the seeds have a yellow colored Pod shattering is also one of the problems to which this variety is resistant. The seeds of this variety have high oil content.
The variety develops purple colored The seed coat has a pale yellow color. The linolenic acid content in the seeds is quite low. This variety is moderately resistant to the yellow mosaic virus and resistant to pod borer and stem fly.
This variety is resistant to many diseases and pest attack. The average maturity period of this variety is 108-130 days. The seeds are green with a transparent seed coat. The seeds are bold and round. The flowers are white in color.
The variety has a clear hilum. The seed size is medium with good protein content. This variety was exclusively developed for making tofu.
The maturity period of curringa is much late. The yield of curringa is very high and this variety is also resistant to some diseases.
The hilum of this variety is brown in color. The seeds have a good size and good content of protein. This is a late maturing variety.
The plant of this variety bears white flowers. The seed size is small to medium. They are round in shape with yellow seeds coat with brown colored This variety also has the nonshattering property of the pod and is resistant to certain pests and diseases.
The soybean varieties must be selected according to the region of cultivation. A proper site has to be selected for commercial cultivation. For soybean farming, it is important that modern methods and scientific knowledge and implements are used for getting a better yield.
Soil Conditions For Soybean Farming
Soybeans can be cultivated in many soil types. The soil must have good drainage, rich fertility and good moisture holding capacity. Soybeans have a low tolerance to waterlogged or saline soils. Hence, such conditions must be avoided. The soil must have a ph close to neutral. Acidic soils are harmful to the growth of soybean plants. Good drainage capacity is also important for the proper growth of soybean plants. The sandy loam soil is best suited for the cultivation of soybean plants.
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Climatic Conditions For Soybean Farming
Soybean plants can be best cultivated in mild to moderate climate. The best temperature for cultivating soybean is 15-30 degree Celsius. The high temperature is needed especially during the growing Extreme temperature is harmful to the growth and the seed yield of soybean plants. About 60-65 cm of annual rainfall is required for the proper growth of the plants. Rainfall at the time of grain development is harmful to the yield. The climate for cultivation of soybean is dependent on the variety used for cultivation.
Land Preparation For Soybean Farming
The land must be thoroughly cleaned and made free of weeds and tree stumps. Any unwanted plant material from previous cultivation must be removed. The land is to be plowed and harrowed to get a fine texture. After that seedbed has to be prepared. Proper drainage facilities must be provided in the field. That will ensure that the excess water is drained out of the field. During the last plow, proper quantities of farmyard manure must also be mixed with the soil.
Propagation And Planting Method Of Soybean Farming
Soybean is propagated by seeds. For planting, healthy and disease free seeds must be selected. Certified seeds bought from a reliable source must be used for planting. Before sowing, seed treatment is also necessary. For commercial cultivation, high yielding variety seeds must be sown in the field to increase the yield. The seeds are sown 2-4cm deep inside the soil. The seeds can be sown by line sowing and seed drill.
Sowing Season For Soybean Farming
The soybean planting season is two times in a year-spring and rainy season. During the spring season, the planting time is February to March whereas in the rainy season it is from June to July.
Plant Spacing And Seed Rate In Soybean Farming
The usual spacing applied is 40cm*3cm in the soybean crop. The seed rate varies for different varieties as well as different purposes. For fodder crop, the seed rate is 70-75kg per hectare, for grains the seed rate is 25-30kg per hectare and for rainy season crop the seed rate is 100-120 kg per hectare.
Fertiliser Application In Soybean Farming
The farmyard manure is applied during land preparation. Since soybean is a leguminous crop, it can fix the atmospheric nitrogen. But, it has been seen that the soybean plants have a good response towards the external application of nitrogen fertilizers. Along with that, proper quantities of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers must also be provided in adequate quantities. The application of organic fertilizer and manure is also equally important. Several micronutrients must be applied along with the macronutrients so that mineral deficiency is not faced by the plants. After fertilizer application, a light irrigation is recommended.
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Irrigation Methods For Soybean Farming
A light irrigation must be applied after sowing of the seeds. Irrigation must also be provided after fertilizer application. About 5-6 irrigations are needed in case the seeds are planted in the spring season. Planting in rainy season does not require much irrigation unless the rainfall is uneven. Watering the plants is critical at the time of flowering and filling of the beans. During excessive rainfall, the water must be drained out of the field. Water conservation can be done by using drip or sprinkler irrigation methods.
Intercultural Methods Of Soybean Farming
Weeding and hoeing must be done regularly to keep the land weed free. Spraying and application of herbicides must be done before sowing of seeds so that weeds cannot emerge in the soil. crop rotation and intercropping may also help to control certain weeds and pests. The soybean may be intercropped with crops such as sorghum, sugarcane, maize, cotton, sesame, paddy, tur etc. Crop rotation with gram, wheat, tobacco, and potato can be done to add extra income and better utilization of the land resources.
Disease And Pest Management Of Soybean Farming
The most common diseases and pests affecting the soybean crop are:
- Green mirid
- Root rot
- Fungal disease
The symptoms are different for different diseases. There are many varieties which are resistant or sometimes tolerant to certain pests and diseases. The disease resistant varieties may be cultivated for better yield. In other cases, suitable pesticides and chemicals may be used for eradication of pests and diseases.
Yield Of Soybean
The average yield of the soybean crop is 25kg per hectare. With proper management and maintenance, the yield can be increased.
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Harvesting Of Soybean
The maturity period for different varieties of soybean is different. The beans are ready for harvesting when the leaves start drying and turn yellow. The moisture content of the seeds decreases to a minimum. The leaves also start to drop. Harvesting must be done at noon till early evening. Usually, the whole plant has to be harvested. Harvesters can also be used for harvesting of soybean plants if the costing permits.
Post-Harvest Management Of Soybean Farming
After harvest, the pods are separated from the plants. The pods are separated by threshing or some other methods to separate it from the plants. They are then dried properly. The diseased and damaged beans must be separated and thrown out. After collecting the beans, they are to be stored under optimum temperature and humidity and must be protected from insects and pests. The remaining vegetative portion of the soybean plant is also used as animal fodder or mulching in other crops.
Marketing Of Soybean
The soybean grains are sorted and packaged properly for marketing. The soybeans can be sold in the local market for selling. Wholesale markets or grocery shops can be used for selling of the beans. For processed products of soybean, they can be sent to the mill or a processing plant. If processing facility is available, then the soybeans and processed products both can be sold to the market.
Soybeans can be packed properly for export as well. They have a good demand in the international market.
Benefits Of Soybean
- Due to high levels of protein, soybean is a very good substitute for meat and other nonvegetarians It is a good option for vegetarians.
- Soybean contains fiber. The fiber helps in digestion and also keeps the metabolism of the body in proper working condition.
- Soybeans are good for the heart. They are known to prevent heart problems and keep the heart healthy.
- Soybeans contain some very important minerals like calcium, magnesium etc. These minerals are important for healthy bones and teeth.
- Soybeans can also prevent diabetes. They can prevent as well as treat diabetes.
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Soybean Farming – Conclusion
Soybeans are such crop which has a high demand for the beans as well as its processed products. Soybean oil has become a healthy substitute for other types of oils. Soybean plants also provide an excellent fodder material and mulch. To increase the yield of soybean, high yielding varieties may be used. Besides that, proper farm management practice and knowledge is also essential. Soybean is an important food crop. Proper implementation of knowledge for soybean cultivation leads to increased yield and higher profits.