Toor Dal Farming – Introduction
Pulse crops are always important next to the grain crops. Pulses provide the necessary vitamins and minerals which the body needs. Also, cultivation of pulses has always been very beneficial. The demand for pulses is huge worldwide.
Among several pulses, toor dal is very popular and commonly eaten by people. Also known as pigeon pea, this variety of pulse is very much in demand. There are lots of food dishes which are prepared using the toor dal. Pigeon pea has also many health benefits which make it so popular among other types of pulses. The demand for pulses is more than the available quantity. Therefore the price remains high.
More and more cultivation of pulses must be encouraged so as to decrease the gap between demand and supply. Doctors also recommend daily consumption of pulses for proper health. It is because they are rich in proteins and proteins are considered to increase muscle mass of the body. While pulse cultivation, the farming knowledge, and implementation have to be proper so that maximum yield can be obtained. Proper nutrition management of pigeon pea is also linked to the nutritional content of the pulses.
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Scientific Name of Toor Dal: Cajanus cajan
Top Toor Dal Producing Countries in the World
- India (2430000 MT)
- Myanmar (500000 MT)
- Malawi (79000 MT)
- Uganda (78000 MT)
- Kenya (55000 MT)
- United Republic of Tanzania (47000 MT)
- Nepal (26000 MT)
- Dominican Republic (13000 MT)
- Trinidad & Tobago (2900 MT)
- Haiti (2600 MT)
India is the largest producer and consumer of toor dal. Cultivation of tur in the Indian States:
- Maharashtra (700000 tons)
- Uttar Pradesh (500000 tons)
- Karnataka (300000 tons)
- Madhya Pradesh (300000 tons)
- Gujarat (100000 tons)
- Tamil Nadu
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Different Varieties Of Toor Dal Cultivated
This variety of toor dal is a late maturing variety and takes about 270 days to reach maturity. The plants grow up to be tall and strong. The yield is quite good at the rate of 15-20 quintals per hectare. The seeds are brown in color. The plant is also suitable for mixed cropping with other legumes, bajra, and Jowar.
This variety is an early maturing variety and takes about 160 days to reach maturity. The plant of this variety is tall and is of semi-spreading The pulse grains have a light brown color and are small in size. This variety produces about 16-20 quintals of grain per hectare.
This variety of toor dal produces a very good yield of 26-30 quintals of grain per hectare. It is resistant to wilt and mosaic disease. This variety is a late maturing variety and matures at 270 days.
This variety of toor dal is an improved variety and is an early maturing variety. The plant matures at 150-160 days. The variety is moderately resistant to several diseases. The grains are round and are brown in color. The quality of this dal is considered superior for cooking purposes. The yield of this variety is 22-25 quintals per hectare. This variety is popularly cultivated in many states.
This variety is also of early maturing variety and matures at 120 days approximately. The seeds have a light brown color and are smaller in size. This variety of toor dal is resistant to the mosaic virus. The plants are of a semi-spreading type and have a medium height. Due to its early maturing duration, the frost season is escaped. The average yield of this variety is 16-20 quintals per hectare.
Cultivation Of Toor Dal
The history of pigeon pea cultivation dates back more than a thousand years. Therefore there are many varieties of toor dal these days and they are widely adapted to the environment. It is necessary that a proper site is selected for its cultivation and proper methods are used to get the best yield.
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Soil Conditions For Toor Dal Farming
The toor dal can be cultivated in a wide range of soils. Toor dal requires a well-drained soil with good fertility. The toor dal crop can tolerate drought conditions up to a limit but to get a good yield such conditions must be avoided. Waterlogged and saline conditions in soil must not be present for the good growth of the plants. The ideal ph of the soil for growing toor dal is 6-8. The soil must have good fertility so that it provides enough nutrition to the plants.
Climatic Conditions For Toor Dal Farming
The toor dal is mainly cultivated in the tropical regions. warm humid climate like in the semi-arid regions is best suited for the growth of the toor dal plants. The ideal temperature for growth of the plants is 22-30 degree Celsius. The cultivation of toor dal also requires an annual rainfall of 600-1400mm. Though maximum of the rainfall is achieved in the rainy season, rainfall during flowering is detrimental to fruit pod growth. Extreme temperatures must be avoided throughout the growth period of the plants. Frost in winter is very harmful to the plants. Therefore exposure to frost must be prevented.
Land Preparation For Toor Dal Farming
The land must be cleared of materials of previous cultivation. After that ploughing and harrowing must be done to make the texture of the soil smooth. Since the plants are planted before the monsoon, the land preparation must be done in summer. Harrowing must be done before the rainy season. The land also must be properly leveled. There should be proper drainage channels present in the field. During the last plough, enough quantities of farmyard manure must be put in the soil to enhance its fertility.
Planting Method For Toor Dal Farming
The toor dal is propagated by seeds. The seeds for sowing must be healthy and disease free. It is better if the seeds are bought from a reliable source. Before sowing the seed, they must be treated appropriately with seed treatment chemicals. The seeds can be sown by dibbling in line sowing using a seed sowing equipment. The seeds are sown 5-6 cm deep inside the soil. the seedlings can also be transplanted from the nursery. In that case, the seedlings are sown in prepared pits in the main field and then the soil is pressed firmly around them.
Plant Spacing And Seed Rate For Toor Dal Farming
Usually, a seed rate of 12-15kg per hectare is adequate for sowing. A spacing of 20cm*60cm is sufficient to let the plants grow properly. The seed rate and spacing may vary slightly for different varieties.
Planting Season For Toor Dal Farming
The seedlings and seeds are sown before the onset of monsoon. The early maturing varieties are usually sown in the first two weeks of June. The late maturing varieties are sown in the first week of July. Delay in sowing and planting must not be done as it leads to decrease in the yield of pulse grains.
Nutrition Management Of Toor Dal Farming
Zinc deficiency is a common problem in toor dal cultivation. Therefore proper supplements f zinc and other minerals must be applied to the crop. Usually, the irrigated crop requires more doses of fertilizers than the rainfed crop. Being a leguminous crop, the atmospheric nitrogen fixation is done by the plants themselves. Other fertilizers must be applied in proper proportions. Apart from that, manures and organic matter must also be provided in proper quantities as excessive fertilizers may damage the fertility of the soil.
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Irrigation Methods In Toor Dal Farming
The toor dal is mainly cultivated as the rainfed crop, therefore, water requirement is minimum. Proper irrigation must be provided in bud formation, flowering and the grain filling stages of the plant. Excessive irrigation is harmful to the plants and can also cause diseases. The excessive provision of water leads to the growth of the foliage which reduces production of grain. Therefore, it must be avoided. Excess water during rainfall must be drained out of the field. The moisture level of the soil must be monitored and watering must only be done when the water requirement of the soil is high and moisture content is low, especially during the drought conditions.
Intercultural Activities In Toor Dal Farming
Since the toor dal crop is sown before the onset of monsoon, there are chances of weed infestation. The weeds can be removed with manual weeding or by using suitable herbicides. Crop rotation and intercropping is also a very good method to control some of the weeds and also to enrich the fertility of the soil.
Disease And Pest Management Of Toor Dal
The most common diseases and pests affecting the toor dal crop and their control measures are as follows:
- Butterfly- carbaryl application
- Moth- indoxacarb or dimethoate application
- Pod borer- dimethoate or azadirachtin application
- Pod fly- indoxacarb or dimethoate application
- Whitefly- dimethoate or phosphamidon spray
- Aphids- dimethoate application
- Powdery mildew- carbendazim or wettable sulphur spray
- Mosaic disease- fenazaquin spray
- Fusarium wilt- appropriate treatment with farmyard manure and other agents
- Leaf spot- Mancozeb spray
Yield Of Toor Dal
With proper farm management and techniques, about 25-30 quintals per hectare can be obtained as an irrigated crop and 15-20 quintals can be obtained as a rainfed crop.
Harvesting Of Toor Dal
The crop is ready to harvest when the leaves and the pods dry out. The grains are hard and compact and the moisture percent is low. The whole plant must be harvested with a sickle. Delay in harvesting must not be done as it leads to pod shattering which might lead to yield loss.
Post-Harvest Management And Marketing Of Toor Dal
After harvesting, the plants are threshed to separate the grains from it. The grains are collected and cleaned. Storage of the grains must be done properly so that they stay well protected from pests, insects, and rodents. After that, the pulses are packaged properly for selling in the market.
The pulses can be sold loose in the local market. Toor dal also has an international demand. So they can be packaged properly and sent for export. There are several agencies that can be contacted for export of the toor dal.
Benefits Of Toor Dal
- Like any other pulses, the toor dal is also rich in proteins. Proteins help in the regular repair of wear and tear of tissues. Proteins also regulate the smooth functioning of the body organs.
- Toor dal is rich in folic acid. Folic acid is essential for nerve and brain development, especially in the foetus. Hence, it is very beneficial for pregnant women.
- Toor dal is rich in dietary fibre. Fibre is good for eliminating wastes out of the body and keeping the system clean.
- Regular consumption of toor dal can help prevent cancer, diabetes and several other health problems.
Toor Dal Farming – Conclusion
Toor dal is highly in demand among many other pulses. The proper cultivation can result in higher yield and better quality. Only a good quality of pulses and higher yield can ensure better returns and good profit. Therefore, cultivation of toor dal can prove to be very beneficial for your business.