Turnip Cultivation – Introduction
Turnip is a very common vegetable eaten across the world. The root vegetable is mainly cultivated for its bulbous root. In many places, the turnip greens are also popularly eaten. The cultivation of turnip dates back centuries ago. Today, they are cultivated as a popular vegetable across the world.
The turnip is mainly grown in colder climates. Heat can cause the taste of turnips to go bad. It is mainly grown in temperate regions. The turnip is rich in lots of nutrients. Due to its nutritional value, it is all the more popular. Turnip flesh is commonly white in color. The skin of turnip may be of different colors.
There are many different varieties of turnip cultivated across the world. The turnip greens are equally popular. There are also many varieties of turnip which are grown only for the cultivation of the greens. The turnip leaves are used as a side dish in many places. Turnip is popularly put in salads. It is extensively used for cooking purposes. For turnip cultivation, certain points have to be kept in mind. Good soil and nutrition must be provided to the turnip crop. Only then, a good yield may be achieved. A good yield can give fair returns.
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Scientific Name of Turnip: Brassica rapa
Top Countries Producing Turnips
|Rank||Country||Tons of Carrots and Turnips Produced|
Common Name Of Turnip In Different Languages
|Language||Ways to say turnip|
|Chinese Simplified||芜菁(wú jīng)|
|Marathi||सलगम नावाच कंद व त्याचे झाड|
|Sinhala||රාබු වැනි එළවලු වර්ගයක්|
|Vietnamese||cây củ cải|
Different Varieties Of Turnip Cultivated Across The World
This variety is one of the oldest varieties of turnips which have been cultivated since long. Just like the name, the turnip skin is golden yellow in color. The skin is extremely smooth and the turnip has a perfectly round shape. The average diameter of this turnip is 3-4 inches. The maturity time for this turnip variety is 45-55 days.
Purple Top White Globe
This variety of turnip is popularly grown for its spicy flavor. This variety is turnip is also quite popular among the masses for its tender flesh. The appearance of this turnip variety is also good. The turnip looks white in color with a purple colored crown. The maturity time for this turnip variety is 55 days. The diameter of the vegetable is about 4-5 inches. The skin is smooth and the vegetable is round in shape.
This a Japanese variety of turnip plant. The snowball is named after the turnip which has a snow white flesh as well as skin. this turnip variety has a mild taste compared to other varieties. The flesh also tastes juicy and sweet. The taste retains if harvesting is done on time. If harvesting is delayed, the taste may go bitter. This is an early maturing variety. It takes just six weeks to reach maturity.
The white turnip has a pure white skin and flesh. The turnip greens are also eaten. The diameter of the vegetable is 2.5-3 inches. This turnip variety is an early maturing one and takes 35 days to mature.
This variety is actually a cross between a rutabaga and a turnip. This is a late maturing variety. The turnip takes 75 days to reach maturity. The roots along with the greens are popularly eaten. This is a popular variety which is popular for its tenderness and sweetness. The flavor of this turnip variety is very unique and actually depends upon the soil where it is cultivated upon.
This turnip is an excellent choice for planting in winter. It can easily tolerate the extreme temperature very well. This variety takes about 12-15 weeks to reach maturity. The yield is very good for this variety. The turnip bulbs are large in size.
The Tokyo turnip variety produces small-sized The turnip has a juicy and sweet flavor when raw. When it is boiled or steamed, it produces butter-like flavor. The turnip has a diameter of 1-3 inches. The shape of the turnips is globular.
The turnip has a green colored top and is globe shaped. The roots of the turnip are white in color. When harvested at the right time, the turnip produces a mild flavor and has a tender flesh. This variety takes 6-8 weeks to reach maturity.
Among all the white skinned variety, the scarlet queen is the unique variety. Though the skin of the turnip is bright red, the flesh is white. This colorful turnip would look very good on a salad table. The turnip is slightly flat in shape compared to the round varieties. The turnip greens are dark in color. This variety of turnip is also resistant to the downy mildew disease. Because of its fantastic flavor and attractive appearance, it is served with other herbs and condiments on the salad platter.
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Cultivation Of Turnip
Turnips are mainly cultivated in cool weather. Sunny days with moderate and pleasant weather are best suited for turnip cultivation. for cultivating the best varieties, it is also important to take good care of the crop and use modern methods of farming.
Soil Conditions For Cultivation Of Turnip
The turnip can be cultivated on a wide range of soils. The best soil for radish cultivation is loamy soil. it grows better in slightly acidic soils. The ideal ph for turnip cultivation is 5.8-6.2. Soil must be rich in organic matter. The soil also must be well drained and well aerated. Too heavy or too light soils are not suitable for turnip cultivation. The compact soil is also not good for root formation. Therefore such conditions must be avoided.
Climatic Conditions For Turnip Cultivation
The turnip can be cultivated in temperate regions. it is basically a crop of the cold season. The ideal temperature for growing turnip is 45-75 degree Fahrenheit. A temperature exceeding the highest limit might hamper the flavor and texture of turnips. Cold weather is ideal for planting turnips. However, the turnips must be protected from frost. Light to moderate rainfall is sufficient for turnip cultivation. They also need plenty of sunshine to grow well.
Land Preparation For Turnip Cultivation
The land must be cleared of any weeds or unwanted matter. After that, ploughing of the land must be done to remove the clods in the soil. After the last plough, enough quantities of farmyard manure must be mixed with the soil. Drainage channels must be made in the field. Decomposed manure must be mixed with soil.
Propagation Methods For Turnip Cultivation
The turnip is propagated through seeds. The seed selection must be done properly. It is better if the seeds are bought from a certified store. Only healthy and disease free must be selected for sowing. Pretreatment of the seeds is necessary for avoiding certain diseases and pest attack.
Planting Method For Turnip Cultivation
The turnip is better cultivated directly in the main field. Transplantation is not well adapted in turnip plants. Therefore the seeds must be sown directly into the soil. The seeds must be sown using any seed drill implement. The seeds must be sown at least 1.5cm deep inside the soil. After sowing, a light irrigation must be given. The seeds can be sown by line sowing method. The seeds can be sown in the seedbed. If ridges and furrows are made in the field, then the seeds can be sown in ridges.
Planting Season, Spacing And Seed Rate Of Turnip Cultivation
September-November is the best time for planting turnips. It is best to plant the turnips in cold weather. The usual spacing required for turnip cultivation is 8cm*45cm. For every acre of land, 2-3kg of seeds is sufficient.
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Fertilisers And Manure Application For The Cultivation Of Turnips
The fertilizers can be given in the form of single super phosphate and urea. Proper supply of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium is essential for nutrition of the plant. The farmyard manure is provided at the time of land preparation. The fertilizers must be applied based on the soil test of the land. After fertilizer application, irrigation must be given.
Irrigation Methods For Turnip Cultivation
Over-irrigation in turnip crop leads to badly shaped turnip roots. Therefore it must be avoided at all costs. Summer, the frequency of irrigation must be increased. Winter, less irrigation is needed. In case of excess rain, the water must be drained of the field. According to the moisture content of the soil, irrigation must be provided. On a total, 7-8 irrigations are required for turnip cultivation. Water conserving methods may be also used for watering the crop. The first irrigation must be given after sowing of the seeds.
Intercultural Operations In Cultivation Of Turnip
After germination, thinning must be done at an interval of 15 days. Thinning must be done to ensure that the healthy plants remain in the field. Weeding and hoeing must be done to remove the unwanted weeds out of the field. Earthing up must be done to reduce the emergence of the weeds in a turnip field. In any case, pesticides may also be used for effective removal of weeds. Manual methods may also be used in combination with other methods for weed control.
Disease And Pest Control Methods For Turnip Cultivation
The following are the pests and diseases and methods to control them.
- Crown rot- seed treatment with thiram
- Sclerotinia rot- crop rotation, weed control
- Flea beetles- usage of floating row covers, carbaryl or permethrin application
- Clubroot- liming of soil, using certified seeds
- Cabbage aphid- usage of insecticidal chemicals
- Blackroot- crop rotation
- Alternaria leaf spot- crop rotation, diseases free seed usage
- Cercospora leaf spot- crop rotation, sowing certified seeds
- Downy mildew- crop rotation
- Root maggots- usage of floating row covers
- Turnip mosaic- usage of reflective mulches
Yield Of Turnip
On an average, 105 quintals of turnip roots can be yielded per acre of land.
The turnips are harvested by uprooting them. The maturity time of the turnip depends upon the variety used. When the proper size is reached, they can be pulled out of the field. There should not be a delay in harvesting of turnips. The turnip harvesting must be carried out in the evening.
Post-Harvest Management And Marketing Of Turnips
After harvest, the roots must be washed properly. The turnip tops and greens must be cleaned thoroughly. After that, they must be sorted and graded. After that, they are packed in boxes and cartons to be sold in the market. The turnips can be stored for 2-3 days under normal conditions. Under protected conditions, they can be stored up to two weeks.
Benefits Of Turnip
- Turnips are antioxidant-rich Due to its high antioxidant content, it can help prevent cancers especially breast cancer and colon cancer
- Turnips are very good for healthy bones. It contains calcium and potassium which are necessary for healthy bones.
- Turnips especially turnip greens are rich in fiber. The fiber helps in digestion and also makes the metabolism stronger.
- Turnips are rich in Vitamin-C. The vitamin-C content helps the body to fight diseases and keeps it healthy.
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The turnip is a very popular vegetable across the world. It has been cultivated ever since the old ages. There are so many high yielding varieties of turnips available in the market. To cultivate a good variety, one must be selected according to the place of cultivation. a good yield and good qualities of turnips will fetch a very good price in the market. Turnips have also a very good demand in the international market. Therefore, proper cultivation can give huge benefits.